35.093 Mirificarma mulinella (Zeller, 1839)

Status and Distribution

Widespread and locally common over much of the British Isles but apparently uncommon or possibly even absent from some areas where only gorse occurs. Not recorded from the Outer Hebrides or Shetland.

National Status: 

Common

Bradley & Fletcher no: 

792
Photo courtesy of UK Moths.
Photographer: Ian Kimber
Location: Littleborough, Lancashire

Provisional Map

Maps updated with all data received by February 2018.

    Imago

    Larva

    Mirificarma mulinella early instar (Photo: B Smart)  Mirificarma mulinella larva (Photo: B Smart)  Mirificarma mulinella larva (Photo: B Smart)  Mirificarma mulinella Cheshire, feeding sign Cytisus (Photo: B. Smart)

    Mirificarma mulinella larva (Photo: B Smart)  Mirificarma mulinella larva (Photo: B Smart)  Mirificarma mulinella larva (Photo: B Smart)

    Mirificarma mulinella larva (Photo: B Smart)  Mirificarma mulinella larvae, Sale Water Park (Photo: B Smart)  Mirificarma mulinella larvae Trafford (Photo: B Smart)

     

    Set Specimens

    Dissection Group

    Foodplant and Larval Feeding Signs

    Mirificarma mulinella larval feeding signs on Gorse (Photo: B Smart)  Mirificarma mulinella feeding signs on Broom in 2015, Sale Water Park (Photo: B Smart)  Mirificarma mulinella foodplant (broom) Kent 2015 (photo: S Palmer)

    Ulex europaeus (gorse), see distribution map, Cytisus scoparius (broom) and occasionally on Lupinus arboreus (tree lupin) and a cultivar of Genista tinctoria (dyer's greenweed).

    In Europe, has also been recorded on Cytisus grandiflorus (wooly-podded broom), Lembotropis nigricans, Genista germanica and Calicotome spinosa.

    Small holes in an unopened flower bud or light spinning around the top of a shoot indicate the possible presence of a larva.

    Foodplant Map

    Habitat

    Mirificarma mulinella habitat Kent 2015 (photo: S Palmer)  Mirificarma mulinella habitat Lancashire 2016 (Photo: S. Palmer)

    Heathland, under-grazed pasture on farmland, hedgerows, railway embankments, river banks, extensive shingle, acidic tops to chalky areas and waste ground.

    Finding the Moth

    Larva: the small entrance hole on an unopened or partially opened flower may indicate the presence of a larva feeding inside. Other insects also make such holes and Agonopterix nervosa has been bred from flowerheads of broom where the holes were observed. In tree lupin, the larva is found on the leaves, spinning a leaflet into a pod. In Anglesey, North Wales, the moth was bred from a larva feeding in spun broom shoots and such feeding has since been located in Lancashire. A photograph of this feeding method (from Sale Water Park) can be seen in the Feeding section.

    Adult: can be disturbed from, smoked out of, or netted flying close to the foodplant. It has also been attracted to sugar (Hertfordshire 1969), found nectaring on ragwort and is strongly attracted to light.

    Similar Species

    A variable species but often showing a dark brown streak on the forewing from about one third to the apex. A second, occasionally merging, streak may also be present starting from near the base to about one half. When worn or lacking these obvious streaks dissection may be necessary.

    In Europe, and discovered for the first time in Denmark in 2014, Mirificarma interrupta occurs which can appear quite similar to pale, streaked forms of M. mulinella. The former species is shorter-winged, has cream forewings with a very prominent black streak and flies generally earlier in the year, between March and August, possibly in two broods.

    In Europe it has been noted that the moth is often recognised by the presence of many orange scales which may form slender stripes on the forewing. Comments on the usefulness of this identification feature in British specimens would be appreciated from those encountering this moth regularly.

    Larval Occurrence

    Larval Occurrence

    Flight Period

    Flight Period

    Single brooded from early July to early September.

    Earliest: 19th June 2006 (VC44)

    Latest: 19th October 1988 (VC66)

    For any pale, obviously black streaked forms found early in the season, particularly March to June, Mirificarma interrupta may need to be considered - see 'Finding'.